Of our many thousands of archive collections, one of the largest is that of the Diocese of Salisbury. It spans the 13th to the 21st centuries and is still growing as we continue to receive modern additions. Such is its scope that it includes material relating to parishes across much of the county and beyond and contains a wealth of information useful to local and family historians. This blogpost aims to give you a brief overview of this rich and varied collection, as well as highlighting some of the useful interpretative resources available. There’s a lot to cover, so let’s take a deep breath and dive in.
What is a Diocese?
A diocese is the geographic area under the jurisdiction of a given Church of England bishop. These ecclesiastical boundaries date from before the Reformation and do not match county boundaries. Nor have diocesan boundaries always remained the same. In 1542 much of Dorset previously part of the Salisbury Diocese was transferred to the Diocese of Bristol. Then in 1836 they moved back to Salisbury again. Also in 1836 Berkshire parishes moved to the Diocese of Oxford. Our collection therefore includes records relating to Dorset and Berkshire parishes but only during the time they were part of the Salisbury Diocese. In 1836 many north Wiltshire parishes (such as those around Chippenham, Swindon, Cricklade and Malmesbury) moved to the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Bristol. Their records can be found at Bristol Records Office.
How is the collection arranged?
The collection brings together the archives of various officials and jurisdictions, starting with the highest-ranking – the sequential Bishops of Salisbury, whose records are denoted on our catalogue by the prefix D1. This extensive collection paints a comprehensive picture of successive bishops’ work. For example, the series of Bishops’ Registers (reference D1/2) record the inspection of parishes, ordination of clergy, issues of taxation, and the bishops’ interactions with religious houses. In addition, a specific series (D1/30) records the bishops’ relations with the City of Salisbury.
The diocese was also served by two archdeaconries, whose responsibilities included overseeing the upkeep of church buildings and the wellbeing of clergy. The jurisdiction of the Archdeaconry of Salisbury (series reference D2) includes much of the southern half of the diocese, while the Archdeaconry of Wiltshire (D3) encompassed much of the northern part. There are two exceptions to this rule, both in the City of Salisbury. Records in the D4 series pertain to the Sub-Dean of Salisbury who exercised jurisdiction over the three city parishes of St. Thomas, St. Edmund and St. Martin, plus the neighbouring parish of Stratford-sub-Castle. The other exception is for the Dean of Salisbury Cathedral (D5). The Dean’s jurisdiction includes seemingly random parishes from Ramsbury in the north east to Mere in the south west. It is also worth noting that the records of Salisbury Cathedral itself remain at the cathedral and can be accessed there, post lockdown.
Subsequent series relate to the various Prebends and Peculiars across the diocese. Each Prebend (series D6 to D20) gave its income not to a parish rectory but directly to the bishop for the upkeep of the cathedral or collegiate church. Examples include the Prebends of Bishopstone (North Wilts), Durnford and Netheravon (respectively D6, D9 and D12). Meanwhile the Peculiars (D21 to D27) are those areas classed as outside the jurisdiction of the bishop and archdeacon of the diocese in which they are situated. Examples include the Peculiar of the Lord Warden of Savernake Forest (D21), and the Peculiar of Trowbridge (D22). To assist you, we maintain a list of parishes and their relevant jurisdictions. The final series in the collection relates to jurisdictions outside Wiltshire. D28 concerns the papers of the Archdeaconry of Dorset formerly belonging to the Bishop of Bristol, while D29 and D30 pertain to the Archdeacons of Dorset and Sherborne respectively.
What do the documents tell us?
It’s not possible to discuss all the intricate and informative parts of the diocesan collection, but a few important sets of documents stand out as most pertinent to the local and family historian.
Visitation records provide evidence of the regular inspection of the incumbent clergy and their parish. The churchwarden’s presentment is a report made by the churchwarden on parish affairs and submitted to the bishop. These inspections took place every three years from 1662 onwards. The presentments (D1/54) usually include notes on the conditions of church buildings and their contents, as well as reports on the progress and conduct of the local clergy. Additionally, they also contain a wealth of material on the moral behaviour of the parishioners, such as non-attendance at church, bastardy issues, and details of non-conformists. Members of the wonderful Wiltshire Family History Society have transcribed the 1662 Churchwardens’ Presentments, which is a handy resource for interpreting this series. Many issues raised in the presentments led to appearances in the Church Courts. These records cover disputes over probate terms and tithe payments, plus non-attendance at church. Act Books are a brief record, but the Deposition Books are more informative and tell us much of everyday parish life. Another informative set of records are the visitation queries (D1/56, 1783 onwards). These were a printed set of questions to which the clergy added their responses. Our friends at the Wiltshire Record Society (WRS) have published the Wiltshire Returns to the Bishops’ Visitation Queries, 1783, (WRS vol 27). These and other volumes are held at the History Centre and are also available online at the WRS website.
Diocesan records also include several series pertaining to nonconformists. Bishops’ registers sometimes include details of certificates issued to dissenters’ meeting houses (typically between 1757 and 1807). Sometimes these were registered by the civil authority (see our quarter session records) but others were registered by the church. The WRS volume Wiltshire Dissenters’ Meeting House Certificates and Registrations, 1689–1852 may provide you with a useful starting point for these records. Additionally, series D1/9 contains papers relating to Catholics and Protestant Nonconformists, which include lists of dissenters and their meeting houses. Most date from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries.
The diocesan collection also sheds light on parochial clergy, not just the procedures of the church but also the names of those ordained. Ordination papers often include testimonials from colleges and clergymen and occasionally copies of baptism certificates. Various pre-1836 records such as the bishop’s registers and subscription books have been used to create the Clergy of the Church of England Database searchable by parish, diocese and clergy. For later clergy try Crockfords Clerical Directory.
The collection also includes matrimonial records of couples who wished to acquire a marriage licence from the clergy. Licences were sought for various reasons. Often a couple did not wish to wait for the reading of the banns in their parish church. Also, as licences required the payment of a fee it was considered a sign of wealth and status. Additionally, before 1837 all couples (excepting those of the Jewish and Quaker faiths) had to be married by the Church of England, so many non-conformists would apply for a licence. The licencing process generated two types of documents. The first are marriage allegation books. The allegation was a formal statement by the applicant about the ages, marital status and places of residence of the parties to be married, and usually includes a statement of the groom's occupation. Secondly, marriage licence bonds, which are sworn testaments usually by the groom and either his father or a friend. This acted as a pledge to forfeit a sum of money if the information supplied in the allegation proves to be false. All marriage licence records have been indexed by the Family History Society and are available on Findmypast (paywall).
Faculties (D1/61) should prove useful to anyone interested in church renovation. A file was created for each proposed repair or addition to a church or churchyard. Each file outlines the requirements, costs, etc and includes plans. This would be submitted to the bishop who, if he approved, would grant a licence for the alterations. The series begins in the eighteenth century and is still regularly added to with 21st century modifications. Furthermore a series of mortgages for vicarages and rectories (D/11) also includes plans and specifications.
Glebe terriers (D1/24 and D5/10) list the land belonging to the parish church and the resulting payment of tithes due for the upkeep of the church. See also the WRS volume on Wiltshire Glebe Terriers (vol 56). Similarly the collection of tithe maps (D1/25) which date from the mid nineteenth century, are a useful and evocative plan of the parish. The accompanying schedule lists the owners and occupiers of each parcel of land, plus land use and field names. These series form an important source for topographical researchers, and local and family historians alike. These can also be accessed on Know Your Place website.
This is just a quick taster of a handful of significant series. There is much more to explore and enjoy in this immense collection. Details of this and all our collections can be found on Calmview, our online catalogue. Also visit the Archives pages on this wesbite for more research tools.
Last year I completed a dissertation that looked at how archives and archival activity could help tackle the widespread issue of elderly loneliness. As an archive professional I wanted to see what was being done within the profession that could aid the mental and physical well-being of those experiencing loneliness, but also to ask what else could be done. My research showed archival institutions are well placed to contribute to tackling loneliness, indeed they are already actively doing so. This blog hopes to highlight the positive effect of using archives during lockdown (and beyond!), and update readers on our work behind the scenes.
Anyone who frequents an archive may note its popularity with those of retirement age; retirees may have more time to undertake research and so may visit an archive more often. However, it should be emphasised that archives are friendly, welcoming places for anyone with an interest in history or any form of local history research to conduct: be it students researching for their degrees, house historians searching historic building applications, or family history enthusiasts. Anyone and everyone is welcome: provision of access to historic documents is at the forefront of our work, and we would encourage anyone to visit Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre, regardless of age and, furthermore, that feelings of isolation and loneliness are universal and not confined to any one demographic!
So, in these unprecedented times, where isolation and loneliness for all age groups is more prevalent than ever before, Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre is looking at new ways of serving all of our community. While we’re unable to carry out any physical outreach work during lockdown, promoting and ensuring continued access for as broad an audience as possible is still a fundamental and highly enjoyable part of the work of the archive team at WSHC, except now we must find new ways to reach out to anyone unaware of what we can offer!
In terms of our ability to interact with the community, our intrinsic knowledge of the local area ensures that we are well placed to do this. Archivists can relate to tales of old and offer suggestions on how to find out more on such subjects, but we can also bring to light fascinating new stories, that were hitherto forgotten or hiding in the strongrooms. In Wiltshire, our County Local Studies Librarian, Julie Davis, does exactly this with her ‘Memory Box’ reading groups – follow this link to see some of her recent isolation sessions from her living room. Julie’s work shows how heritage professionals are adapting to fulfil their duties during this period. Not yet available on the website, but done in preparation for the VE Day celebrations is her extract readings on the event. This is available here.
The entire nation would normally be planning events to commemorate the 75th anniversary of VE day. However, new and innovative ways are being sought to celebrate and mark the occasion during lockdown. The talk we had planned at WSHC has been made available online, again by Julie Davis, and is available here (you may need to sign in to Google for this).
Of course it is a great shame not being able to celebrate with our family, friends and neighbours, but Wiltshire Council has put together a VE Day Toolkit, that will hopefully provide inspiration on how best to celebrate this momentous occasion at home or in the garden.
Even if we cannot be in the immediate vicinity of our friends, family or community, we can continue to be connected, and being connected can contribute to people’s well-being. Did you know that there is evidence to show that tracing your family tree can have a positive effect on your mental health? Indeed, any form of research that engages the mind will be positive during these times, so why not take a look at some of the fantastic online resources that are available and start a new research project or learn about the local area? You can find out more about these resources here in our recent blogs.
Connectedness does not need to be confined to the present. Relating to the past, be it family members researched as part of a genealogy project, or even past occupiers of your house, can help ease feelings of isolation. Documents usually consulted in the searchroom, are increasingly available as online resources, for example: Wiltshire parish registers and wills are now temporarily available for free on Ancestry. Follow this link to see what’s available and for guidance on how to proceed. So, if you’re at home struggling for things to do, why not start your family history? We have starter packs available here too!
There are multiple agencies working locally and nationally to assist us in these difficult times. If you, or anyone you know, is struggling in isolation in Wiltshire, check out the Wiltshire Wellbeing Hub. Charities are naturally at the forefront of the effort to keep loneliness and isolation at bay. At a local level, Celebrating Age is a fantastic project aimed at tackling the issue of loneliness by delivering arts and heritage events in community settings for frail, vulnerable older people unable to access concert halls or theatres. Their current programme of events has understandably been called off, however they are looking at ways of delivering digital programme. Follow this link for 90 minutes of live music and storytelling from the comfort of your living room! Also, keep an eye on their website when lockdown is over because they are doing great things across the county.
At a national level, the Campaign to End Loneliness website has a really useful section specifically for Corona virus related issues and anxieties, as does the Age UK site.
I’d just like to sign off by wishing all of our readers well. Do share, re-tweet or pass on this message with family, neighbours, colleagues or anyone you know who may be struggling with loneliness during lockdown and whose well-being may benefit from some of the suggestions here.
Follow us on Twitter, friend us on Facebook and keep a close eye on our website for more information, as well as updates on re-opening. Happy researching!
Do you have an interest in archaeology? Would you like to know what has been found in your local area, or want to know more about how people lived in Wiltshire in the past? If so, then you might be interested to access our new website that allows you to research the finds, buildings, sites and monuments that exist on the county Historic Environment Record (HER).
The Historic Environment Record (HER) is a fantastic resource that holds information on all the currently known archaeology for Wiltshire and Swindon. This includes everything from Palaeolithic flint tools that are half a million years old to World War I practice trenches created only a hundred years ago – as well as everything in between! Using the HER can be fun and helps to guide your research, as it can tell you about the character and date of archaeological sites/finds as well as how they have been investigated and where you can find more (such as in journals, books and reports).
The new website allows people to easily search the archaeology of Wiltshire and presents data on both a map and dynamic database. To have a go, click to visit the HER homepage
The new website is easier to use than our previous one and allows you to search by the following themes: • Unique identifier number – so you can find records you’ve accessed before… • Keyword – to find particular find/site types – such as castles or axeheads! • Site name – for place names you know like your parish church or famous sites like Stonehenge! • Period – so you can see all Roman artefacts or all prehistoric archaeology we know about… • Grid reference – if you know exactly where you want to research - whether rural or urban!
You can also browse by navigating the interactive map – which can show both Ordnance Survey mapping or aerial photography. You can pan and zoom using the tools and the grid reference of your location handily shows at the top in case you need it!
W.G. Hoskins, the great pioneer of English local history, wrote in his ground breaking book, ‘Local History in England’ (1959), “Directories … give us a good start for reconstructing the kind of community which existed over a period of about a hundred years from the 1830s to the 1930s”. Admittedly, he was writing when only two of the Victorian censuses were available to use for historic investigation; modern researchers are spoiled for choice in having easy accessibility to no less than eight census returns, spanning the period 1841-1911.
Even so, directories – published lists of people’s addresses and occupations – continue to supply much useful information for family and local history researchers. Although hardly ever listing those of humble status (don’t expect your servant or labourer forebears to be mentioned), directories provide information on a more frequent basis than the census. In the nineteenth century, and right up to the decades following the Second World War, detailed directories appeared encompassing the whole country. Some national publishers (like Slater and the better-known Kelly) covered whole counties every couple of years, while other smaller local printers might concentrate on a single city or town, sometimes also including villages in the vicinity. As they were produced by competing firms, one year might see several different directories produced for a given place, and the following two or three years, nothing at all.
Whether they are weighty tomes, or slim booklets, directories provide useful, contemporary descriptions of Victorian and Edwardian parishes, towns and cities. They may give details of population and geography, agriculture and industry, schools, charities, public institutions, details of conveyances (coaches and trains) .… but most people use directories to search for people. They will not provide up-to-the-minute information; because of the delay between collecting information and publication, directories may include information that was a year or more out of date by the time the publication date was finally reached. Despite that limitation, a directory can give a flavour of a place, conveying a sense of what a town or district was like to live in at a particular time, and identifying the main property owners, naming the shopkeepers and listing the tradesmen who gave a place its unique character.
They generally listed people whom literate or reasonably well-off people might want to find – clergymen, gentry, nobility, professionals, farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen. Directories may give exact street numbers where census returns do not. The lists often appear in sections, sometimes using a threefold division into ‘Court’, ‘Commercial’ and ‘Trade’ – where Court listed private residents alphabetically, Commercial listed trade and business people alphabetically and Trade broke the commercial list down into constituent professions and trades.
Secret Swindon by Angela Atkinson Amberley Press, 2018 95 pages, includes bibliography, paperback ISBN 9781445683386 £14.99
The aim of this colourful publication is to prove that Swindon is so much more than you might think; a multi-layered, unique and vibrant town. As a reader you are invited to discover things you never knew, aided by ‘Did you Know’ fact boxes to guide the way.
The book begins with an interesting synopsis of the history of the town before the railway. The stories of Swindon’s major families, writers such as Richard Jefferies, Edith New, Swindon suffragette and houses now lost figure here, alongside secret locations and tips on how to while away a happy hour in the town on a historical theme.
Travel back with the GWR and the amazing feats of its employees to create a healthcare system and some wonderful works of culture; also included are the origins of the Mechanics Institute and Swindon’s aviation history for good measure. Modern Swindon is not overlooked, with architecture, the magic roundabout and the strength of today’s cultural activities being investigated.
Angela’s style is witty, snappy and easy to read, weaving information with a conversational tone reminiscent of her origins as a successful blogger.
The content is a lovely mix of old and new on a multitude of topics that goes to the heart of the character of the town. The images reflect the content and complement the text well.
The aim of the book has indeed been met. It will prove an eclectic revelation to both Swindonians and non-Swindonians alike.
It is available to view at here at the History Centre under ref: SWI.940
“But here, on the downs, you are not compassed about with trees and boughs, and locked fast in rich meadows… Instead there are bareness, simplicity, and spaciousness, coupled with a feeling of great strength and uncontrolled freedom, an infinity of range, and an immortality of purpose.”
Alfred Williams is better known for his poetry, having gained the title ‘Hammerman Poet’ whilst working for the Great Western Railway in Swindon.
Williams wanted to sketch a view of the people and landscape covering a whole locality rather than just one village or parish. The site was well known to him; along the ridgeway overlooking the Vale of the White Horse which extends into Oxfordshire, now part of the North Wessex Downs AONB.
Alfred’s attempt was successful and what remains are a collection of stories and imagery that takes you from community to community over a 20 mile area. Alfred notes that the characters he writes about are exactly as he found them, and he paints a good picture, describing their clothes, their speech, their backgrounds and trades, but the picture appears to have always been so rosy… perhaps possible artistic licence makes for a more nostalgic read?
The downs are described in detail including how they were cultivated and the flora and fauna that could be found. There were also the buildings; where they were located, what they looked like and their uses. The journey is fondly itinerated, from village to village, up slopes, through thickets and coombs, beside springs. Information on the history of the locations as Alfred knew it is recorded, along with tales of poaching, thieves, smugglers and ghosts. Time was spent talking about local sports such as cockfighting and backswarding and their importance in the community, the relationship between locals and their bees, and the customs that bound these traditions together. Williams presents a unified picture of old village life with ballad sheets in every house and many songs sung in pubs; fairs and revels; village ales. He also vividly notes the changes in the area from the first threshing machine, the first train, the arrival of telegraph poles, the decline of village trades.
Alfred encapsulated the lives of a number of local craftspeople such as the carter, the sawyer, the weaver, the tailor and the basket maker to name a few, describing who they were and how they worked. He also went into great depth regarding how to make certain products, from soap and candlemaking to watercress and elderflower products. Elderflower wine stood high in the estimation of the villagers. The famous north Wiltshire bacon could not be excluded.